Quiropractico

Perez Zeledon, Costa Rica

La Fibromialgia y la Quiropráctica

539627_460346967414876_627818093_n[1]La Fibromialgia es una condición que se presenta con frecuencia en consultas Quiroprácticas.

Lo que debe saber la persona diagnosticada con esta enfermedad es que La Quiropráctica le puede ayudar mucho, y con la supervisión de su médico de cabecera el paciente puede disminuir la cantidad de medicamento que consume.

Los cuidados Quiroprácticos ayudan sensiblemente a disminuir el dolor y el cansancio crónico porque el paciente empieza a dormir mejor. Simplemente el hecho de poder obtener descanso recuperador permite que el cuerpo se regenere, y la mejoría en muchos casos es rápida

Con el diagnóstico de fibromialgia el paciente se ve destinado a una vida que cada vez empeora y a tener que tomar medicamento a diario que con el tiempo le pasan factura a los órganos.

La fibromialgia es un trastorno de auto inmunidad, y esto quiere decir que el cuerpo de alguna manera se está peleando contra su propio tejido. Que su cuerpo se pelee y monte defensas contra su propio tejido es disfunción. ¿Y si no se corrige la disfunción cómo puede usted sanar?

El Quiropráctico corrige la disfunción en el cuerpo para que el paciente mejore y pueda disminuir el consumo de fármacos.

pacientes con fibromialgia benefician mucho de tratamientos de quiropractica.Tres cosas que se experimentan clínicamente son la reducción de los dolores y de los puntos dolorosos que son característicos de la fibromialgia, y que la persona comienza a dormir mejor. Al poder descansar, el cuerpo empieza a normalizarse. Al poder dormir de forma recuperadora, se ve un aumento en la mejoría del cansancio crónico que también caracteriza la fibromialgia.

Si usted sufre de fibromialgia, la Quiropráctica es altamente recomendada, y le dará un gran beneficio.
En muchos países el médico le recomienda la Quiropráctica a pacientes con fibromialgia
Todo caso de fibromialgia que yo he tratado en mi consulta ha mejorado notablemente.
Haga una cita para poder orientarle sobre su caso. Lo que le espera es una vida mejor.
——————————————————————————–

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Jul-Aug;20(6):389-99.

The effectiveness of chiropractic management of fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study.

Blunt KL, Rajwani MH, Guerriero RC.

Source

Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To demonstrate the effectiveness of chiropractic management for fibromyalgia patients using reported pain levels, cervical and lumbar ranges of motion, strength, flexibility, tender points, myalgic score and perceived functional ability as outcome measures.

DESIGN:

A. Preliminary randomized control crossover trial. B. Before and after design.

PATIENTS:

Twenty-one rheumatology patients (25-70 yr). CHIROPRACTIC INTERVENTIONS: Treatment consisted of 4 wk of spinal manipulation, soft tissue therapy and passive stretching at the chiropractors’ discretion. CONTROL INTERVENTION: Chiropractic management withheld for 4 wk with continuation of prescribed medication.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Changes in scores on the Oswestry Pain Disability Index, Neck Disability Index, Visual Analogue Scale, straight leg raise and lumbar and cervical ranges of motion were observed.

RESULTS:

Chiropractic management improved patients’ cervical and lumbar ranges of motion, straight leg raise and reported pain levels. These changes were judged to be clinically important within the confines of our sample only.

CONCLUSIONS:

Further study with a sample size of 81 (for 80% power at alpha < or = .05) is recommended to determine if these findings are generalizable to the target population of fibromyalgia suffers.
—————————————————————————–
Chiropractic Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Michael Schneider, DC, PhD
Corresponding Author Information
email address
, Howard Vernon, DC, PhD
, Gordon Ko, MD, Gordon Lawson, MSc, DC, Jerome Perera
Received 29 April 2008; received in revised form 10 July 2008; accepted 11 August 2008.

Abstract

Objective

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed nonarticular soft tissue conditions in all fields of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature for the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for FMS and to provide evidence ratings for these procedures. The emphasis of this literature review was on conservative and nonpharmaceutical therapies.

Methods

The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site www.ccgpp.org (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. Online comprehensive literature searches were performed of the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; National Guidelines Clearinghouse; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Index to Chiropractic Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Allied and Complementary Medicine; and PubMed up to June 2006.

Results

Our search yielded the following results: 8 systematic reviews, 3 meta-analyses, 5 published guidelines, and 1 consensus document. Our direct search of the databases for additional randomized trials did not find any chiropractic randomized clinical trials that were not already included in one or more of the systematic reviews/guidelines. The review of the Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases yielded an additional 38 articles regarding various nonpharmacologic therapies such as chiropractic, acupuncture, nutritional/herbal supplements, massage, etc. Review of these articles resulted in the following recommendations regarding nonpharmaceutical treatments of FMS. Strong evidence supports aerobic exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy. Moderate evidence supports massage, muscle strength training, acupuncture, and spa therapy (balneotherapy). Limited evidence supports spinal manipulation, movement/body awareness, vitamins, herbs, and dietary modification.

Conclusions

Several nonpharmacologic treatments and manual-type therapies have acceptable evidentiary support in the treatment of FMS.

El Síndrome De Colon Irritable

ibs[1]

La condición descrita como síndrome de intestino irritable suele ser tratados con cambios en la dieta, sobre el mostrador o la prescripción de medicamentos. Aquí nos fijamos en algunas de las terapias alternativas para el síndrome de colon irritable. Una alternativa de tratamiento para el síndrome de colon irritable que ha sido eficaz para muchas personas es una mezcla de hierbas y botánicos que se sabe que tienen un efecto contrainflamatorio. Hierbas como la manzanilla alemana, Reina de los prados y Slippery Elm suelen ser incluidos en estas mezclas. Slippery Elm ha sido utilizada durante siglos por los pueblos nativos para tratar indigestión y malestar estomacal. Tradicionales de hierbas y botánicos no están regulados por la Food and Drug Administration y la mayor parte de la investigación relativa a su eficacia se lleva a cabo en Europa y Asia. La investigación es caro y en los Estados Unidos, es principalmente llevada a cabo por las compañías farmacéuticas que están interesadas en la mayoría de los productos a los que puede ser producido sintéticamente y patentado. Si recurren a hierbas y botánicos como una alternativa de tratamiento para el síndrome de colon irritable, busca una empresa que vende un número de diferentes productos, ha estado en el negocio durante años y el personal o consulta con los médicos y herboristas naturopathic de la medicina. Hierbas y plantas son bastante baratos terapias alternativas para el síndrome de colon irritable. Una alternativa de tratamiento para el síndrome de colon irritable que ha estado en la revistas de salud últimamente no puede ser tan barato. Un pequeño estudio publicado en el Journal of Clinical Enfermería informó de que la hipnosis es algo eficaz, en particular en la mejora de las dificultades emocionales que a veces acompañan el síndrome. Si usted está interesado en el hipnotismo como una alternativa de tratamiento para el síndrome de intestino irritable, usted encontrará que los precios varían y las calificaciones. Un período de sesiones por sí sola probablemente no mejorar los síntomas. Los participantes en el estudio recibieron una o dos sesiones de terapia al mes durante tres meses. Atención quiropráctica es una de las terapias alternativas para el síndrome de intestino irritable que puede ser pasado por alto. Muchas personas piensan de quiroprácticos como “doctores de vuelta” y no pensar en consulta por dolor abdominal. Sin embargo, la columna vertebral casas de los nervios que conducen al estómago y los intestinos, así como el resto del cuerpo. Por lo tanto, los ajustes de las vértebras puede ser eficaz en aliviar el dolor y la inflamación asociados con el síndrome. Muchas compañías de seguros de salud cubren la atención quiropráctica. También puede utilizar el dinero de un “flex” el gasto en cuenta si tiene una. La gestión del estrés o la terapia conductual puede ser una alternativa eficaz para el tratamiento de síndrome de intestino irritable de acuerdo con el Colegio Americano de Gastroenterólogos. Si bien nadie está seguro de qué causa el síndrome. La mayoría de los pacientes son de alto ensartar, ansiosa o bajo una gran presión o estrés. La gestión del estrés o la terapia conductual como una alternativa de tratamiento para el síndrome de colon irritable puede incluir la instrucción en técnicas de relajación, meditación y asesoramiento. La terapia es generalmente realizado por un psicólogo, pero hay muchos auto-ayuda de trabajo sobre el tema de la gestión del estrés. Sólo usted y su médico pueden decidir qué terapias alternativas para el síndrome de intestino irritable puede ser eficaz para usted. Es importante recordar que el dolor de estómago puede ser un síntoma de una condición más grave y un físico completo debe realizarse para descartar estas condiciones. Auto-diagnóstico y auto-tratamiento con más de los medicamentos, las hierbas medicinales o de otro Tratamiento alternativo para el síndrome de intestino irritable no es recomendable. Para obtener más información acerca de síndrome de intestino irritable y otros problemas digestivos, visite Www.digestive-trastornos-guide.com Patsy Hamilton tiene más de veinte años de experiencia como un profesional de la salud y en la actualidad escribe artículos informativos de la Guía de Trastornos digestivos. Leer más Http://www.digestive-disorders-guide.com

El proceso del parto

Chiropractor_large[1]

El proceso del parto puede ser traumático para el bebé. Las
contracciones del canal de parto proporcionan el estímulo
necesario para el desarrollo de la cabeza y el cerebro del bebé.
El canal del parto esta llena de bacterias buenas que tocan los
labios del bebe, ojos y otras partes del cuerpo que afectan a la
salud general del bebé en una manera positiva.
El proceso del nacimiento se convierte en traumático cuando el
médico extrae el bebé de la madre. En la sociedad occidental, la
gravedad no se utiliza para ayudar con el embarazo. También la
madre está en una posición horizontal con la presión en su
espalda baja no permitiendo que sus caderas se habran esto hace
que se reduzca la apertura vaginal. Así que el doctor utiliza
sus manos o pinzas para tirar de la cabeza y girarla para hacer
espacio para los hombros para salir del canal del parto .
Los médicos inyectan a la madre con la epidural para
reducir el dolor del parto , pero esto ralentiza las contracciones del útero para entonces la madre se le inyecta oxitocina para acelerar las contracciones . Esto lleva a la angustia y una cesárea.
Por lo general, el cordón umbilical , la cual provee oxígeno
fresco y nutrientes para el bebé , se corta demasiado rápido .
Las luces son brillantes , hay un montón de ruido, que es una
situación estresante para la madre. El nitrato de plata se
vierte en los ojos del bebé como un procedimiento estándar si la
madre tiene gonorrea. El moco que ayuda a proteger la piel suele
limpiarse demasiado rápido también.
El cerebro debe ser capaz de comunicarse correctamente a todas
las partes del bebé en primer lugar mediante el envío de
mensajes desde el tronco cerebral . Un reflejo del desarrollo o
la coordinación entre gateo pueden verse afectada. Tal vez el
bebé se puede alimentar de un solo lado porque hay lesión en el
cuello del bebe.
Si hay problemas o nota algunos de estas situaciones con su
bebé, el Dr. Robert es feliz de comprobar que el bebé de libre
de subluxación vertebral , yo puedo ajustas su bebé muy
suavemente con el toque de un dedo, y permitir que la sabiduría
que creó el bebé se exprese en su cuerpo 100 % .
Dr. Robert analiza y asiste a todos los bebés en su
oficina de forma gratuita. Creemos que cuando nuestros hijos se
conectan desde el nacimiento provoca un lugar más saludable y
más vibrante para vivir.
Dr. Robert Henderson Colegio de Profesionales en Quiropractica
de Costa Rica. Lic. #22

Myasthenia Gravis (Miastenia gravis)

Myasthenia-Gravis[1]Quiropráctica ayuda a los nervios a comunicarse mejor con los músculos.

Case Study: Myasthenia Gravis Patient Responds to Chiropractic Care
The June 1999 Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics reports that a 63 year-old patient with myasthenia gravis responded very favorably to chiropractic care.

Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disorder that typically involves the voluntary muscles of the eyes, face, throat and limbs. Muscle weakness and loss of motor control, often to the point of wheelchair confinement results.

This case involved a 63 year-old man who suffered from the disease for approximately 30 years. He was experiencing difficulty swallowing, swelling of the tongue, weakness in the eye muscles, double vision, difficulty breathing, digestive problems, nausea and headaches. He also reported walking difficulties as a result of problems with balance and coordination.

Medical management before chiropractic care involved medication that wasn’t working and plans to put him in an iron lung because of breathing problems.

After a short course of corrective chiropractic care, the patient was placed on a wellness schedule with instructions to get in sooner should a problem occur.

Despite occasional flare-ups that occur, the patient is doing much better. The patient reports that he is not experiencing any signs or symptoms of myasthenia gravis. Previous to chiropractic care he was semi-retired and working irregularly. Presently, the study reports, he is working full-time as a businessman.

Commentary: Chiropractic is not a cure for any disease or disorder. Chiropractic concentrates on removing interference to the nervous system so that the body can function better. Once better function occurs, the body is in a better position to not only heal itself, but maintain a higher expression of health throughout its lifetime.
——————————————————————–
J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2003 (Jul); 26 (6): 390–394

Joel Alcantara, DC, Gregory Plaugher, DC, H. Jason Araghi, DC

This study was funded by Life Chiropractic College West, Hayward, California, the Gonstead Clinical Studies Society, Santa Cruz, California, and the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, Media, Pennsylvania. Life Chiropractic College West, 2001 Industrial Blvd, Hayward, CA 94545, USA; gplaugher@lifewest.edu

OBJECTIVE: To describe the chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with complaints associated with myasthenia gravis.

CLINICAL FEATURES: A 2-year-old girl was provided chiropractic care at the request and consent of her parents for complaints of ptosis and generalized muscle weakness (ie, lethargy), particularly in the lower extremities. Prior to entry into chiropractic management, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and acetylcholine receptor antibody tests were performed with negative results. However, the Tensilon test was positive and the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was made by a pediatrician and seconded by a medical neurologist.

INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was cared for with contact-specific, high-velocity, low-amplitude adjustments to sites of vertebral subluxation complexes in the upper cervical and sacral spine. The patient’s response to care was positive and after 5 months of regular chiropractic treatment her symptoms abated completely.

CONCLUSION: There are indications that patients suffering from disorders “beyond low back pain” as presented in this case report may derive benefits from chiropractic intervention/management.

From the Full-Text Article:

Discussion

Myasthenia gravis is a disease of the neuromuscular junction. Specifically, an autoimmune response occurs, wherein antibodies for the acetylcholine receptors reduce the number available at the postsynaptic membrane either though increased antibody cross-linking and exocytosis, blockade of the receptor binding site, or damage of the postsynaptic membrane in conjunction with complement. [7] The result is a characteristic pattern of muscle weakness affecting initially the muscles innervated by the cranial nerves.

Childhood or adolescent onset MG accounts for approximately 11% to 24% of all patients with MG. [15, 16] The prevalence of autoimmune MG has been determined to be 4 to 10 of every 100,000 in the general population. [17, 18] In childhood or adolescent MG, 3 forms exist. They are juvenile MG, congenital MG, and transient neonatal MG. Juvenile MG is an acquired autoimmune disorder, wherein circulating antibodies attack the acetylcholine receptors on the motor endplates. [19] In congenital MG, various components of the neuromuscular junction are dysfunctional as a result of a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders. Receptor antibodies are not found, but this disorder does have other distinctive clinical or laboratory findings. [20] Spontaneous remissions are not expected in congenital MG. Juvenile MG is considered rare in children less than 1 year of age; however, its incidence increases with age. Gender bias for the disease is almost nonexistent during the prepubertal years (1.8:1 in favor of girls), but late onset favors females more than males (14:1). [21] There is recent limited evidence of familial tendency for MG. [22]

The diagnosis of MG is almost pathognomonic, with a history and physical examination findings of ptosis, diplopia, and weakness in the muscles of facial expression or mastication. [23] Generalized weakness increases with repeated muscle activity and is improved by rest. A recent report has attempted to quantify the effects on muscle strength with a reliable measurement instrument, the Quantified Myasthenia Gravis Strength Score, and this instrument has been recommended for both clinical and research settings. [24] Between 50% and 70% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis will eventually develop generalized disease. [25] Laboratory testing with the Tensilon test is highly probable for MG if the test is unequivocally positive. Another test may involve radioimmunoassay for acetylcholine receptor antibodies. The test is approximately 90% positive for generalized MG, 50% positive for ocular MG, and a negative result does not rule out the possible diagnosis of MG. [7] In juvenile myasthenia, it is more common for children to not have a positive test (presence of antibodies) for the acetylcholine. [21]

Differential diagnoses for patients with symptoms as described above must account for other disorders with similar presenting complaints. These include drug-induced myasthenia, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), neurasthenia, hyperthyroidism, botulism, intracranial mass lesions, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia, to name a few. [1] Clinical findings, in addition to laboratory and other special studies, will assist in the differential diagnosis. For example, EMG or single-fiber EMG can assist in determining juvenile MG from myopathic disorders. With respect to the seronegative findings in the patient described, such findings are not unusual, particularly in patients with prepubertal onset. [26-28]

In addition, according to Anlar and others, [21, 29, 30] disorders such as juvenile-onset diabetes, asthma, thyroid disorders, and rheumatoid arthritis, are common comorbidities. Myasthenia gravis can also be associated with other autoimmune diseases (eg, Hashimoto disease). [31, 32]

Medical intervention

For juvenile MG patients, several medical approaches are available. One involves the use of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. These inhibit the breakdown of acetylcholine to choline and acetate. Examples include pyridostigmine and neostigmine. Adverse reactions do occur due to possible overdose, and these include miosis, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, pallor, bradycardia, diarrhea, cramps, and increased weakness. Even in those who do not overdose their medications, significant side effects with considerable costs [33] can occur, including coronary spastic angina. [34] Another involves immunomodulatory approaches, where immunosuppressive agents are said to decrease fatalities and improve prognosis. An example is the use of glucocorticoids, such as prednisone. Adverse effects may include osteomalacia, hypertension, and body weight gain. Azathioprines are popular for use with adult MG patients, but their use in children is cautioned due to the adverse effect of secondary malignancies. Other immunosuppressive agents in use include cyclophosphamide and cyclosporin, but their adverse effects (ie, leucopenia and hemorrhagic cystitis, nephrotoxicity) limit their use. A third intervention involves plasmapheresis. This method removes the acetylcholine receptor antibodies from circulation. An alternative option from plasmapheresis is the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. Its action is thought to occur by blockade of Fc receptors on macrophages, binding of antibodies, reduction of receptor antibodies, prevention of its binding at the neuromuscular junction, or the stimulation of T suppressor cells. Thymectomy is also used as a treatment option. However, in consideration of the role of the thymus in immune function development, the recommended age is not until the patient is at least 10 years old, but as low as 5 years has been suggested as acceptable. [21] Studies in adults have also been inconclusive as to the efficacy of thymectomy due to multiple differences in baseline characteristics from various nonrandomized studies. Gronseth and Barohn [35] conclude that the benefit of thymectomy in nonthymomatous autoimmune MG has not been established conclusively. Guidelines have been developed for researchers attempting to study efficacy issues in the care of patients with myasthenia gravis. [36] One nonrandomized, retrospective study comparing surgical (ie, thymectomy) versus conservative treatments (ie, medications) has shown equivalent outcomes. [37]

The role of chiropractic care

Although anecdotes and patient testimonials have historically supported the role of chiropractic care in patients with complaints other than musculoskeletal-related conditions, the scientific literature is only now just beginning to document the role of chiropractic and other nonallopathic approaches in such patients. A MEDLINE search (1966-2001) using the subject headings chiropractic, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, and myasthenia gravis turned up an inconsiderable amount of available literature. Of those available, 1 paper was chiropractically related. Alcantara et al [38] described the successful chiropractic care of a 55-year-old patient with long-standing MG. Care was provided to sites of vertebral subluxation, utilizing the Gonstead Technique. Pease et al [39] described a case of persistent weakness in a 31-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis following therapeutic electrical stimulation. She was injured in an automobile accident and consulted a chiropractor 2 days later because her symptoms had not abated. Chiropractic treatment was described as consisting of short-wave diathermy, high-voltage electric stimulation, and spinal manipulation, continuing 3 times per week for 6 weeks. She then presented to her neurologist complaining of persistent fatigue, weakness, increased diplopia, cervical and occipital pain, and disrupted sleep. It was concluded that the patient’s symptoms were aggravated by the use of electrical stimulation. Other papers involved the role of acupuncture in patients with MG [40-42] and Chinese medicine. [43] Beekman and Oosterhuis [44] published their analysis on the use of alternative treatments by patients before and after MG was diagnosed and the influence on the diagnostic delay.

To discern the salutary effects of any intervention, several factors must be considered. Foremost it involves a consideration of the natural history of the disease, while another examines the specific and nonspecific effects of care. These issues have previously been discussed by Alcantara et al [38] from a chiropractic perspective. With respect to the natural history of juvenile MG, Andrews et al [45] found that the earlier onset of MG resulted in more favorable outcomes. Similar to findings in previous studies, [29, 46] they found an overall remission rate of 41%, particularly if onset was prepubertal. Less frequent spontaneous remissions are reported in older patients. In the study by Rodriguez et al, [29] they found from observations of 149 patients with juvenile MG studied from onset of disease for as long as 40 years, that spontaneous remissions occurred less in patients with onset after 11 years of age. Andrews et al [45] have speculated that the putative environmental trigger that precipitates juvenile MG in some patients may not be able to sustain an ongoing autoimmune response in the presence of immunosuppressive effects of androgens during adrenarche or due to the absence of stimulatory effects of circulating female sex steroids. If, indeed, putative environmental triggers play prominently in juvenile MG, the authors are interested in the possibilities of the vitalistic approach of chiropractic care in the care and prevention of individuals with this disease and other disorders. The patient in the present case report was involved in a motor vehicle collision prior to developing the MG symptoms. A case of MG in a 17-year-old football player appeared to develop following a minor head trauma sustained during a collegiate scrimmage. [46] The role of spinal or head trauma preceding the onset of symptoms in MG remains to be explored in both retrospective and prospective investigations. We encourage further research into this area.

Conclusion

We report the successful chiropractic case management of a 2-year-old patient with antibody-negative, generalized MG. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the scientific literature describing chiropractic in a pediatric patient with MG. Adjustive care was provided based on the objective and subjective parameters of vertebral and sacral findings, interpreted as vertebral subluxation complex. Prospective research into the efficacy of this approach to health care is encouraged. The possible role of an environmental trigger (eg, spinal trauma) antecedent to the development of MG symptoms and the salutary effects of chiropractic care need to be explored.
—————————————————————-

investigación científica

http://www.centroquiropracticoamericano.com/articulos/estudioscientificos.pdf

ÍNDICE
I. Introducción ………………………………………………………………… 3
II. Estudios sobre el dolor lumbar …………………………………….. 5
III. Estudios sobre el dolor cervical ……………………………………. 13
IV. Estudios sobre la columna dorsal …………………………………. 28
V. Estudios sobre el dolor de cabeza………………………………….. 30
VI. Estudios sobre el síndrome del túnel carpiano ………………. 35
VII. Estudios sobre trastornos orgánicos y problemas
varios …………………………………………………………………………… 36
VIII. Estudios sobre promoción de la salud y actitud
preventiva …………………………………………………………………….49
IX. Estudios sobre la relación costo-eficacia
de la Quiropráctica ………………………………………………………. 54
X. Sobre los efectos secundarios de los cuidados
quiroprácticos………………………………………………………………. 58
XI. La Quiropráctica: una profesión a caballo entre la
medicina convencional y la medicina alternativa …………… 61
Investigación científica sobre la Quiropráctica ———————————————————————————————– 3
- Capítulo I –
INTRODUCCIÓN
Actualmente existen pruebas y evidencia sobre la eficacia y rentabilidad del
tratamiento quiropráctico, y las encuestas indican un alto grado de satisfacción de los
pacientes, como así lo indican estudios como el realizado por la Organización de
Consumidores y Usuarios en cuatro países de la Unión Europea1.
Ahora bien, no ha sido el agrado y satisfacción de los pacientes el factor
desencadenante de cambios en la política sanitaria de algunos países. Han sido los
números, la rentabilidad de estos cuidados frente a otros tratamientos médicos, los que
han convencido de lleno a los planificadores de los sistemas de salud. La eficiencia
económica de la atención quiropráctica para algunos problemas respalda convenció de
forma abrumadora de la utilización de estos servicios frente a otros más caros, más
drásticos y menos eficientes.
Por otro lado, se ha demostrado la seguridad del ajuste quiropráctico frente a otros
tratamientos más traumáticos y que conllevan más riesgos para el paciente. No en vano
la Quiropráctica ofrece un servicio diferente que prescinde de la cirugía y la
farmacología.
Debido a la íntima relación que existe entre el sistema nervioso y la columna
vertebral que ya hemos explicado, un tratamiento mecánico como el ajuste vertebral
específico tiene efectos sobre órganos internos también, o podríamos decir que hay
efectos tanto locales como centrales.
La experiencia clínica sugiere que la columna vertebral tiene una importancia no
siempre reconocida en problemas orgánicos. El cardiólogo alemán Kunert habla de
ejemplos así, y concluye que lesiones mecánicas de la columna vertebral son
perfectamente capaces de simular, acentuar, o contribuir en gran medida a
enfermedades orgánicas, que no hay ninguna duda de que la columna vertebral influye
en la función de los órganos internos.
Lewit, neurólogo de Praga, muy conocido en la medicina manual en Europa,
escribe sobre sus experiencias clínicas empleando manipulación de la columna vertebral
para tratar pacientes con problemas respiratorios, problemas de corazón, de
digestión, problemas ginecológicos, migraña, vértigo y otros.
En el pasado los estudios se centraron en demostrar la eficiencia del cuidado
quiropráctico en problemas relacionados con la espalda: dolor lumbar, dolor cervical y
dolor de cabeza y cuello. Durante la última década las investigaciones han sondeado
otros terrenos, a partir de los resultados obtenidos en consultas y clínicas
quiroprácticas. El interés por los resultados quiroprácticos abre nuevos horizontes hacia
la demostración de su efectividad en problemas biomecánicos de las extremidades,
problemas de la infancia (asma, micción involuntaria, problemas de audición,
resistencia inmunitaria deficiente, otitis media, amigdalitis o cólicos), trastornos
auditivos, visuales y de equilibrio, hipertensión, trastornos respiratorios, digestivos
1 OCU Salud: “Quiropráctica. Pacientes satisfechos”. Nº 24, Junio-Julio 1999, pp. 9-13.
Investigación científica sobre la Quiropráctica ———————————————————————————————– 4
y cardiacos, trastornos pélvicos y ginecológicos, dismenorrea y como tratamiento
preventivo y de promoción de la salud. Así lo expone David Chapman Smith en su
obra “The chiropractic profession”, que supone una recopilación de estudios sobre la
Quiropráctica, y que además cuenta con el reconocimiento y la aprobación del
estamento médico internacional2.
Deberíamos recordar que el plural de “anécdota” es “data”, y estamos acumulando
data sobre condiciones tan dispares como niños con amigdalitis, disfunción del
intestino grueso, pérdida de campo visual. Los resultados con nuestros pacientes nos
obligan a profundizar más sobre todo en los efectos centrales de nuestros ajustes. Si
fuera solo una vez sería una anécdota, pero una y otra vez pacientes que llegan a la
consulta por dolor en la espalda obtienen mejora en otros aspectos de su organismo,
como la respiración, digestión, circulación, la visión, sexualidad, audición, la piel. La
lista, por supuesto, continúa.
Es obvio que queda por hacer mucha investigación de este tipo, y seríamos muy
poco responsables si insistiésemos en que el único tratamiento razonable para estos
problemas es el tratamiento del ajuste quiropráctico. Pero también está muy claro,
como dice Korr, el neurofisiólogo que tanto ha estudiado los efectos de la
manipulación específica, que el alivio del dolor de la espalda es sólo la punta del
iceberg referente a los efectos clínicos del ajuste vertebral específico.
2 Chapman Smith, D: “The chiropractic profession. Its education, practice, research and future directions”. Ed.
NCMIC Group Inc., West des Moines (EE.UU.), 2000.
Investigación científica sobre la Quiropráctica ———————————————————————————————– 5
- Capítulo II –
ESTUDIOS SOBRE EL DOLOR LUMBAR

Escoliosis (Scoliosis) y Quiropractica

¿Qué es?

La escoliosis es una desviación lateral y rotación de la columna vertebral de más de 10º que se puede apreciar en una radiografía. Es una deformación de la columna y no debe confundirse con una mala postura. La escoliosis afecta mayoritariamente a las mujeres de entre 8 y 18 años, aunque también afecta a los chicos. Algunas personas nacen con esta desviación espinal (congénita) y otros la padecen por adoptar una posición anormal con la cabeza o la cadera (causa más habitual).

Desgraciadamente, en muchos casos la causa se desconoce. Sin embargo, unos padres atentos pueden notar que un hombro es más alto, una cadera más baja o una pierna más corta, problemas que hacen que la ropa no se ajuste correctamente al cuerpo de su hijo/a. Pueden presentarse dolores de espalda o en las piernas que son pasados por alto como simples “dolores del crecimiento”.

Si se deja seguir su curso, la escoliosis puede ser más pronunicada al cabo de los años. Los casos más severos pueden requerir una operación que inserta varias varas de acero para forzar el enderezamiento de la columna vertebral.

Nosotros aconsejamos una revisión completa para detectarla en su etapa inicial. A continuación, se pueden dar acciones correctivas inmediatamente. El tratamiento primario es un plan de ajustes quiroprácticos específicos. Estos ayudan a mejorar la función y la estructura de la columna. Los músculos se fortalecen y la postura también puede mejorar.

ACLARACIONES:

- Es normal cierto grado de curvatura lateral? No. Desde atrás, la columna parece recta. Cuando la escoliosis está presente normalmente hay dos curvaturas: una curva principal en una dirección y la otra compensatoria en la otra dirección.

- La falta de calcio y llevar una mochila pesada pueden causar la escoliosis? No. Sin embargo, hay un número cada vez más elevado de personas que creen que pueden estar implicados en daños espinales no corregidos sufridos durante el nacimiento. Otros sugieren que el uso de andadores para acelerar los primeros pasos del bebé, en realidad acortan su etapa de gatear, esencial para un correcto desarrollo de la columna.

- ¿Cuándo es el mejor momento para una revisión para detectar la escoliosis? Como en la mayoría de los temas relacionados con la salud, una detección temprana puede mejorar la probabilidad de su corrección. Los padres sabios acuden a la consulta de un doctor quiropráctico poco después del nacimiento de su bebé. Seguidamente, continúan con sus revisiones quiroprácticas periódicas durante sus años de crecimiento.

La atención quiropráctica ha ayudado a muchos jóvenes a recuperar su salud, su postura y su autoestima.

————————————————————–Escoliosis y otras desviaciones de columna

La escoliosis es una desviación lateral y rotacional de la columna vertebral de más de 10º visto en radiografía. Es una deformación de la columna y no se debe confundir con una mala postura.

En la mayoría de los casos la causa es desconocida.

La columna, al desviarse, produce una diferencia en la altura de los hombros y la pelvis y que la cabeza no esté en posición vertical. También produce una pierna más corta que la otra.

——————————————————————————————-
http://icpa4kids.org/Chiropractic-Research/Scoliosis/998852_672210926141503_125317176_n[1]

——————————————————————————————

A Retrospective Consecutive Case Analysis of Pretreatment and Comparative Static Radiological Parameters Following Chiropractic Adjustments

The data from pre and comparative post measurements of retrolisthesis showed a significant reduction of approximately 34%. No reduction was seen in a control group with retrolisthesis.

Plaugher G, Cremata E, Phillips R. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990 (Nov-Dec); 13 (9): 498-506
—————————————————————————————————–

Study on Chiropractic Care for Adolescent Scoliosis is Encouraging

Children with mild scoliosis treated with chiropractic adjustments have shown a reduction in their spinal curvature, according to the findings of a three-year, $143,000 study funded by the Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research.

This cohort study was conducted by Charles “Skip” Lantz, DC, PhD, director of research of Life Chiropractic College West, and his associates. The researchers were studying the effects of chiropractic full-spine adjustive procedures, heel-lifts, and postural counseling on children 9-15 years old with mild idiopathic scoliosis (less than 20 degrees of curvature, with no complicating conditions).

Charles “Skip” Lantz, DC, PhD
—————————————————————————————-

Proprioceptive Function in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Disturbances of postural equilibrium have been found in idiopathic scoliosis, and it has been suggested by several researchers that this is a result of brain stem disturbances. It has been shown experimentally that stress on posterior nerve roots can also cause spinal deviation.

Yekutiel M; Robin GC; Yarum R. Spine 1981 (Nov-Dec); 6 (6): 560-566

Injured workers benefit from chiropractic adjustments

The-Benefits-of-Chiropractic-Care-for-Work-Related-Injuries[1] J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 (Nov); 32 (9): 765–771

Donald Aspegren, DC, MS, Brian A. Enebo, DC, PhD, Matt Miller, MD, Linda White, MD, Venu Akuthota, MD, Thomas E. Hyde, DC, James M. Cox, DC

Department of Rehabilitation, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Lakewood, CO 80215, USA. dr.dda@comcast.net

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to report on integrative care for the treatment of injured workers with neck or back pain referred to a doctor of chiropractic from a medical or osteopathic provider.

METHODS: This retrospective case series study evaluated data on 100 patients referred for chiropractic care of work-related spinal injuries involving workers’ compensation claims. Deidentified data included age, sex, visual analog scale scores for pain, pre- and posttreatment Functional Rating Index (FRI) scores, and subjective response to chiropractic care. Based on date of injury to first chiropractic treatment, patients were subdivided as acute, subacute, or chronic injured workers. Cases were analyzed for differences in pretreatment FRI scores, posttreatment FRI scores, FRI change scores (posttreatment FRI minus pretreatment FRI score), and subjective percentage improvement using a 1-way analysis of variance. Treatment included manual therapy techniques and exercise.

RESULTS: Injured workers with either an acute or subacute injury had significantly lower posttreatment FRI scores compared with individuals with a chronic injury. The FRI change scores were significantly greater in the acute group compared with either the subacute or chronic injured workers. Workers in all categories showed improved posttreatment tolerance for work-related activities and significantly lower posttreatment subjective pain scores.

CONCLUSIONS: The study identified positive effects of chiropractic management included in integrative care when treating work-related neck or back pain. Improvement in both functional scores and subjective response was noted in all 3 time-based phases of patient status (acute, subacute, and chronic).

From the FULL TEXT Article

Discussion

The time lapse between injury onset and date of first chiropractic treatment may influence functional treatment outcomes. More specifically, workers with acute and subacute injuries had greater improvements in posttreatment FRI scores than did injured workers with a chronic injury. In addition, when the change in FRI was considered, acutely injured workers had a larger relative difference between pre- and posttreatment FRI scores. Consistent with functional improvements, there appeared to be greater posttreatment tolerance for work activity in the acutely injured workers.

Return to Work

There is an inverse relation between absenteeism after an injury and the likelihood of return to the workplace. [5, 15] Pransky et al [16] describe the importance of regaining work status, noting that prolonged disability may result in workers losing confidence in their ability to perform work-related duties with consequential compromise in their return to work. In our study, improvement in work status was noted in acute, subacute, and chronic groups (Figs 2-4).

Natural History

It may be suggested that our results represent natural history findings. Early natural history reports of acute low back pain suggested spontaneous resolution within 4 to 6 weeks in 80% to 90% of cases. [17-19] However, this has been recently challenged by several reports. Hestbaek et al, [20, 21] Carey et al, [22] and later Nachemson and Jonsson [19] describe how acute low back pain becomes chronic or recurrent more frequently than previously suspected. Jayson [23] expanded on these concerns, noting at 3 months that the natural history prognosis for patients having experienced an acute episode of low back pain was as follows: 27% were completely better, 28% improved, 30% had no change, and 14% were actually worse. Theories of why patients may continue with pain beyond the 6-week period or experience a relapse are plentiful. Hides et al [24] describe observations of stabilizing muscles, such as the lumbar multifidus, not demonstrating spontaneous recovery of function after the remission of acute low back pain symptoms. Basic science studies by Hodges et al [25] recently observed enlargement of adipocytes and clustering of myofibers at multiple spinal levels 3 to 6 days after disk and nerve lesions. Their study suggested that these changes may be due to rapid disuse associated with reflex inhibitory mechanisms. [25] Studies such as these raise a clinical concern of an extended delay period before initiating care because these observed changes may manifest in patients with spinal injures, resulting in higher relapse rates and the potential development of chronic status. Our results demonstrated improved response in functional activity gains, subjective improvement reports, and self-perceived work status in all 3 time frame groups of patients; but these results were heightened if chiropractic care was initiated closer to the time of injury.

In our study, disability and actual work status were controlled by the referring physician. Several reports [26-29] in the literature describe how the frequency of disability application may be reduced by improving injured worker satisfaction scores. Workers having negative postinjury experiences with employers, health care providers, and case managers are more likely to apply for disability as a result of their injury. [28, 29] Because of escalating disability rates in the United States, several authors suggest improving postinjury worker satisfaction to decrease the incidence of the injured worker eventually applying for disability. [28, 29] This dissatisfaction is believed to be one reason why injured workers seek attorney involvement, thus delaying case closure and increasing disability. [30, 31] We did not evaluate satisfaction levels in our patients; however, it is noted that chiropractic providers have historically scored high in patient satisfaction assessment [6, 9, 32, 33] and, as a result, may prove useful to decrease the number of eventual disability applicants.

Our patients received a pathology-based diagnosis. We attempted to stay consistent with much of health care that is departing from the pathoanatomical model of treatment and embrace a more progressive biopsychosocial model with appreciation of cognitive factors. [19,34-36] Emphasis was placed on return to work with consequential reduction of stress and anxiety; and as Anderson et al [37] documented, this may improve treatment outcomes. Recovery was further promoted by instructing the injured worker to focus on increasing exercise or physical activity outside of work, while decreasing deconditioning-type activity such as excessive bed rest.

Manipulation in Treatment

Regarding the use of manual techniques, 2 types of SMT were commonly performed on the injured workers in our study. The first was HVLA manipulation, the most commonly referenced form of manipulation in the literature. [38] The second was FD, a form of manipulation that is commonly known within the chiropractic profession for its positive effects on disk pathologies [11,39-41] but also has been shown to have positive clinical results on articular structures of the spine and surrounding pain-generating paraspinal tissues. [12, 41, 42] These are the 2 most commonly used forms of manipulation used by the chiropractic community. [43] The goal of using HVLA and/or FD manipulation was to reestablish normal preinjury distribution of mechanical loads through the targeted spinal articular structures identified in each case and ameliorate irritation to associated involved joints. By attempting to reestablish normal motion, healing is promoted in nociceptive pain generators through a dissipation of pathologic stress and a return to normal activity. Gudavalli describes in Cox’s text [41] how FD manipulation has been shown in cadaveric study to decrease intradiskal pressures, increase intervertebral disk space height, increase foraminal area, and help restore facet joint physiologic ranges of motion. Additional positive effects of manipulation were recently described by Bolton and Budgell, [44] finding that these effects may go beyond the effects of disrupting intraarticular adhesions or releasing entrapped synovial folds. In their report, it is theorized that manipulation may have a particular effect on stimulating mechanoreceptors within deep intervertebral muscles, whereas mobilization techniques were more likely to affect superficial axial muscles.

Adverse Response

Spinal manipulative treatment will cause posttherapeutic soreness in some cases. [45-49] In our study, 10.2% of 68 cases that did not finish care was believed to be due to soreness possibly experienced from treatment. Senstad et al [47] reported that 90% of all reactions were graded by patients as moderate or slight and commenced on the day of therapy in 87% of cases, and disappeared within 24 hours in 83% of cases. No reactions were classified as severe or serious. [47] Most common reactions included local discomfort (55%), headache (12%), tiredness (11%), and radiating discomfort (10%). There were no reports of serious complications in this study. [46] Hurwitz et al [48, 49] evaluated the adverse effects of post-SMT on patient satisfaction scores and perception of improvement. Twenty-five percent [49] to 30% [48] of respondents reported at least 1 adverse reaction. In our study, the benefits of SMT and concerns of post-SMT reactions were discussed with patients before treatment. Other than soreness, no serious complications were reported in our study.

Physical Modalities

In addition to manipulation and exercises, all of our patients received one or several physical modalities including instrument-assistive soft-tissue technique (ie, Graston technique), electrotherapy, or hot packs. Haas et a [l7] describe their clinical study finding dose-dependent linear positive clinical effect for patients receiving physical modalities and manipulation. Patients receiving manipulation alone did show signs of improvement, but not at the same rate.

Work Restrictions

Work restrictions and limitations as well as days of disability were controlled by the medical or osteopathic provider. Questions regarding this area were deflected back to the referring provider. The benefit of this integrative care was that the treatment team was more consistent when one voice communicated to the patient, rather than allowing confusion to occur. Timing for return to work and/or limitations of work are an important area of care and must be handled properly by returning the worker to employment as soon as safely possible. All parties involved benefit by the workers’ rapid safe return to work.

Functional Status and Pain Scores

We used an FRI50 to evaluate status of the injured worker before chiropractic treatment began and at the end of chiropractic care. The FRI is a self-reporting instrument consisting of 10 items, each with 5 possible responses that express graduating levels of disability. Items evaluated included pain intensity, sleeping, personal care, travel, work, recreation, frequency of pain, lifting, walking, and standing. Regarding clinical utility of the FRI, the average time required to complete was 78 seconds. The tool was easy to understand and self-administered. Stewart et al [51] recently identified the FRI as a common disability index used today. Tests for reliability and validity were performed and supported in the original Feise and Menke [50] article.

Pain scores were recorded on all patients upon entry into chiropractic care. McGeary et al [1] report that findings from their multidisciplinary occupational rehabilitation program that elevated pain ratings before rehabilitation were associated with increased dropout rates, higher self-reported depression, and disability after rehabilitation. In our study, patients absent of Waddell et al [52] nonorganic signs for their back injury and absent of Sobel et al [53] cervical nonorganic signs would be classified into one of several phases of rehabilitation, as described by Triano et al. [54] Patients with elevated pain levels were commonly placed in entry-level rehabilitation resulting in more of a basic exercise approach and more basic manipulative procedures with greater emphasis on passive modalities.

Limitations

A limitation of our study was the lack of a separate control group. Hunter et al [55] describe similar limitations in their worker’s compensation study incorporating functional restoration procedures where concerns are raised on limiting care by creating a control group. Further limitations are noted with study weakness involving a retrospective case series. Findings in this study may not necessarily be applicable to other patient populations and locations. The study set the foundation of a future prospective study.

Conclusion

The study demonstrated positive effects of including chiropractic services in integrative care when treating compensable neck and/or back pain. Patients recorded improvement in functional scores and subjective response involving work-related spinal injuries. Improvement was noted in all 3 time-based phases of patient status (acute, subacute, and chronic).

Pediatric Chiropractic

The period from birth to age two is the most dynamic and important phase of brain development in humans. It is a critical period in the child’s neurodevelopment. Interference or damage to the child’s nervous system during this period will have far reaching and permanent effects on the child’s potential and developmental capabilities. These effects will be global in nature and can affect the nervous, immune, hormonal, homeostatic, cognitive, behavioral, organ, and functional capacity of the child.

Birth trauma is also responsible for creating subluxations in the infant’s spine. Assisted deliveries, including: C-sections, forceps, vacuum and induction procedures increase the chance of neurological damage to the infant’s spine and nervous system. While many of these traumas go undetected at the time of occurrence diverse symptoms and conditions can occur later in life as a result of these uncorrected subluxation patterns. Damage in these instances often occurs to the upper cervical (neck) spine and brain stem but traumatization of other levels of the spine are also prevalent.

baby[1]
“The large increase in total brain volume in the first year of life suggests that this is a critical period in which disruption of developmental processes, as the result of innate genetic abnormalities or as a consequence of environmental insults, may have long-lasting or permanent effects on brain structure and functions.”
———————————————————————————

During the first six years of life, as 90% of your child’s neurological development is completed, it is important to have their spine checked for subluxations that can create abnormal compensatory patterns that they carry into adulthood and affect their overall health and development. These neurological / functional / biomechanical / adaptive / dysfunctional patterns, known as subluxations, can occur when external or internal stresses are too much for the body to adapt to in a positive manner and an “overload” occurs in the body to compensate for this process. If this compensation goes uncorrected it will then become the new “norm” from which the nervous system will now function. This new “norm” that is created is usually a negative adaption that creates a lower functional threshold in the nervous system leaving it more susceptible to dis-ease and dysfunction.

582304_496481277070750_249945013_a[1]
“The primary mechanisms of injury to the spinal cord appears to be excessive traction applied to the spinal canal and cord during the birth process.”
Symposium on operative obstetrics, Donn, MD: Vol. 10, No. 2, June 1983
———————————————————————————
———————————————————————————
“Traumatization of the suboccipital structures inhibits functioning of the proprioceptive feedback loops. The motor development, though preprogrammed, cannot develop normally. These systems are fault tolerant and able to overcome considerable difficulties and restricted working conditions. But the price for this is a reduced capacity to absorb additional stress later. These children may show only minor symptoms in the first months of their life but later on at the age of 5 or 6 they suffer from headaches, postural problems or diffuse symptoms like sleep disorders, being unable to concentrate etc.”

Journal of Manual Medicine, Springer – Velag 1992
———————————————————————————-
“The only true subluxation you ever see must be in a child prior to the age of seven years. If this subluxation goes uncorrected it becomes a primary source of stimulus through life, but the tombs of distortion, which form from one traumatic experience to the other, soon bury this primary subluxation under that ‘tomb of distortions.’

“The subluxation that all of us worry about occurred some time between birth and the seventh year of life, and the remedy would of course be careful chiropractic care from birth through the seventh year of life.”

Major Bertrand De Jarnette, DO, DC
————————————————————————————
It is apparent that damage to the spine and nervous system during the development of reactive neurological stress patterns can cause compensatory patterns to either be learned or occur naturally, which will allow the individual to interact with their environment to the best of their ability, but with less than optimal function. These compensations can cause a decrease in functional capability, adaptive response, and decreased stress thresholds and therefore a decreased state of health.

In children, especially, we have the greatest opportunity to find and correct the primary subluxation before degenerative or compensatory patterns set in. In the adult spine we are capable of reducing the detrimental effects, but it takes time to remove the subluxation complex and all its previous compensatory patterns.

The ultimate expression of human potential is the true gift of the chiropractic adjustment.
———————————————————————————–
“Birth related spinal cord injuries appears to be under diagnosed. Severe injuries cause death immediately; incomplete injuries can either cause death within the neonatal period or permit survival. In birth injuries, the upper cervical spine or the cervicothoracic junction is usually affected. However, and level of the spinal cord can be involved, and the involvement of multiple levels is not uncommon.”
Dickman, Rekate, Sonntag, Zabramski
Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

Fundadores de la Quiropractia

bjpalmernewspaper[1]Daniel Palmer & Bartlett Palmer
Fundadores de la Quiropractia.

Daniel David Palmer fundó la quiropráctica en 1895, después de una experiencia en la cual aparentemente curó la sordera de un hombre al manipular su espalda. El fundó la Palmer School of Chiropractic y empezó a enseñar la manipulación espinal. Este colegio existe hasta nuestros días, con un programa completamente acreditado.

Uno de los primeros estudiantes de Palmer fue su hijo, Bartlett Joshua (B.J.) Palmer. Fue B.J. Palmer quien realmente popularizó la técnica. Luego, Willard Carver, abrió una escuela de la competencia. El creía que los médicos quiroprácticos necesitaban ofrecer otros métodos de tratamiento además de la manipulación espinal. Esto abrió un cisma en el mundo quiropráctico que todavía existe hasta la fecha. Los seguidores de Palmer y sus métodos se enfocan sólo en los ajustes de la espina, una propuesta llamada quiropractia “derecha”. Aquellos que, como Carver, utilizan varios propuestas para curar son llamados “mezcladores”. Los mezcladores pueden usar vitaminas, hierbas y varios otros métodos de tratamiento que encuentran útiles (y que la ley les permita practicar).

En los años 70 la investigación científica apropiada empezó a llamar la atención hacia la quiropráctica. En 1977, la Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER) estableció un programa para entrenar a investigadores quiroprácticos. Desde entonces, se han hecho esfuerzos para patrocinar pruebas que examinen la efectividad de las técnicas quiroprácticas y para establecer bases científicas para la práctica.


Casa Quiropractica Del Sur

Dr. Robert Henderson


Frente del Edificio Coopenae
Avenida Central, San Isidro,
Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica


Monday - Friday 9:00 am - 6:00 pm


T: (506) 2770-4206
F: (506) 2770-4207